After the death of al-Mahdi Abbasi Caliph al-Mansur

After the death of al-Mahdi Abbasi Caliph al-Mansur

After the death of al-Mahdi Abbasi Caliph al-Mansur

Muhammad ascended the throne in Baghdad in 65 AD with the title of "Al-Mahdi". He ruled from 65 to 75 AD. Syed Om ott 16791, "Naturally humane and generous, immediately on his accusation to the throne he endeavored to remedy the harshness arHd rigor of his father's rule." Take care of the remedy. ” However, he used to be strict when needed. Suppression of rebellion, resistance of Byzantines, Baghdad. He strived for the betterment of the state through various public welfare works including improvement. He died of his injuries while hunting at Masandan in 65 AD. Al-Hadi

After Al-Mahdi's death, his son Musa ascended the throne with the title "Al-Hadi". But when he died a short time later, in that year his brother Harun rushed to Baghdad and subdued Al-Hadi's adopted son by ascending the throne at the age of 25. Yahya Barmaki, his childhood teacher captured by al-Hadi, was released and appointed chief vizier. Yahya also appointed two sons, Fazal and Jafar, to high positions in the kingdom. He also gave full privileges to his mother Khayjuran with full dignity.

His policy towards the Shaw (Ma.) Dynasty 

During the rule of Mansur, Imam Hassan's grandson Muhammad and his brother Yahya were killed in a rebellion and their brother Yahya declared independence in the province of Dailam in 691 AD. But the caliph became suspicious and imprisoned General Yahya to quell the source of the rebellion for fear of losing power in the future.

Establishment of Aglabi rule in North Africa

Idris Maghbir al-Aqsa of the Ali dynasty during the reign of Caliph Hadi. Idris founded the dynasty. Morocco in Africa also became independent from the Abbasid Empire. The Abbasids, despite their best efforts, have not been able to recapture the region. Caliph Harun Haysam was appointed ruler of North Africa in 7 AD. At his suggestion, Abraham Aglabi was given the reins of North Africa in exchange for a 40,000-day annual subsistence tax.

The Fall of the Burmese 

After the death of al-Mahdi Abbasi Caliph al-Mansur

During the long seventeen years of Harun's reign, the Burmese worked tirelessly, with unwavering loyalty and outstanding. Helps to increase the pride and dignity of the Abbasi dynasty through efficiency. At the same time, their immense influence and wealth in governance continues to increase. Fajr bin Rabi's hostility and Zafar Barmaki's secrets led to their downfall in 703 AD on various suspicions, including the marriage of Harun to Ben Abbas. Zafar was beheaded and Yahya, Fazl, Musa and Muhammad were imprisoned. Their property was confiscated. Syed Amir Ali said, "He was influenced by the constant slander in the blindness of suspicion and the rage of the single regime and forgot about the faithful service of many men." Khalifa Harun-ur-Rashid's Foreign Policy The Foreign Policy of Khalifa Harun-Ar-Rashid S D A o mold

Treaty with IreneOne with the Byzantine Empress Irene during the reign of Harun's previous caliph Mahdi. The treaty was signed. During the reign of Caliph Harun, in 691 AD, they violated the terms of the treaty and invaded the Muslim kingdom. The Muslim forces repulsed their attack in 698-699 AD and captured the two cities of Matara and Ansira. The caliph then formed a separate government with the Byzantines to counter them. He annexed the islands of Crete and Cyprus with the help of the navy in 691-696 to control the Mediterranean. As a result, Empress Irene reconciled and was forced to pay taxes.

RUBIN Conflict with Nicephorus

Byzantine treasurer Nicephorus Irene was deposed in 602 AD. Does. He wrote an arrogant letter to Aaron demanding a refund of the tax paid by Irene in violation of the earlier treaty. Nicephorus writes, “My former empress has given you the status of a worthless lord and has sent to you many riches. It is just a feminine weakness. So as soon as you receive the letter, return the money twice without delay. Other wise the sword will settle between you and me.

 Legislative Assembly in 1909

Was the second barrister among the Muslims of India. In 184 he moved to Calcutta and began teaching law there. In 18 AD he was sent to Calcutta. Magistrates are appointed. In 184 he was elected a member of the Bengal Legislative Assembly and in 183 he was elected a member of the Central Bishad. He retired in 1890 and spent the rest of his life in England. In Khishtab he became a member of the Privy Council in London. He held this position till his death. Syed Ali was the first Indian to receive this honor. Policy, education and contribution to Muslim revival. Politics, Education and Contributions in Muslim Revival According to Nawab Abdul Latif, he too believed that without Western education there would be no political awareness among Muslims. He emerged as a savior for the Muslims of Bengal. He thought deeply about the interests of the Muslims and the need for a political body for them, through which all the demands of the Muslims were forwarded to the British government. For this purpose he founded a political organization called 'Central National Mohammedan Association' in Calcutta in 18 AD. "I see a lack of political education among Indian Muslims and the prestige of Hindu political institutions," he said. Due to his diligent efforts, 53 branches of this association were established all over India. In 1855, Surendranath Bandyopadhyay of Calcutta and many others started the Indian Association and the Indian League and started a movement for the political rights of Hindus. Amir Ali also formed this organization to establish the political rights of Muslims. In 182 he presented to Lord Ripon a memorandum on the grievances of the Indian Muslims. In the memorandum, he mentioned the demand for job security for Muslims, job security for undergraduates, enactment of laws relating to social, political and religious interests of Muslims. In addition, the causes and remedies of the backwardness of the Muslims are highlighted through various newspapers. For his contribution to the field of education, the British government granted him CIE in 182 AD. Awarded the title. When the Muslim League was formed in Dhaka in 1906, he supported it from London. On 7 May 1906, the London branch of the All India Muslim League was established on his initiative. In response to the Muslim League's demands in London, the Morley-Minto Reform Act of 1909 recognized a separate electoral system for Muslims. He was one of the founders of the British Red Crescent Society in London. This great man died in England in 1926. 

Literature and Culture

Amir Ali has fought all his life for the renaissance of Indian Muslims. He told the world about the glorious history and tradition of Muslims through his writings. In 183 AD. As a student, he sharply criticized the misleading information of the European historians about the Prophet (peace be upon him) and God. "The Critical Examination of life and teaching of Muhammad (SM)". His famous book The Spirit of Islam in 181 and A Short History of the Saracens in 1899 brought him worldwide fame. In 1906 a book called 'Islam' was published from London. In addition to "Personal Law" The Mohammedan (1880)", "Mohammedan Law (1883)

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