The weapons used by the soldiers in the Umayyad period

The weapons used by the soldiers in the Umayyad period

The weapons used by the soldiers in the Umayyad period

Were long spears, arrows, bows, double-edged swords, axes, shields, etc. The goldsmiths wore armor and helmets during the war. To increase the morale and morale of the soldiers during the war. Bajanera laekao hatae. And in war, each tribe had its own flag so that everyone could recognize their relatives. During the war, Muslim war style was followed. During the Battle of Riti Matabek, only the enemy had a Tatar provision. There was no provision for killing women, children, saints, old people or slaves. The end of the war. Special instructions were also given to the soldiers not to ruin anyone's field. 

Formation of the Navy: As the Umayyad Caliphate contributed to the conquest of vast territories in Asia, Europe, and Africa, so too will the Umayyad Empire extend to the shores of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean. Caliph Muawiyah first realized the necessity of building a navy. With that in mind, he set up a shipbuilding factory in Syria in 61 AD to repel the Byzantine invasion.


Political Consequences

Controversy among historians over the political consequences of the Arab conquest of the Indus. Historian Stanley Lenpole, on the other hand, commented, "The conquest of Sindh was only | episode in the history of India and of Islam, a triumph without result." Only victory. " Ishwari Prasad said, "It may be conceded at once that the conquest of Sindh, from the political point of view was an unsignificant event in the history of Islam." An insignificant event in history. " However, Lenpool's opinion cannot be accepted in its entirety

Muslim rule was still in force in Sindh-Multan long after the death of Muhammad bin Qasim.


Religious Consequences: Although the campaign was politically futile, the conquest of the Indus by the Arabs had religious significance. Infinite. The conquest of the Indus paved the way for the arrival of Arab saints and Arab merchants in the Pak-Indian subcontinent to propagate the religion of the Arab saints. They worked tirelessly to establish Islam in this country. The Arab Muslims were the first to establish a mosque in Debal (known as the Mosque of Vamba). Indian architecture was born when Muslim architecture came in contact with ancient Indian architecture.


Social and cultural consequences


The most important significance of the Arab conquest of the Indus was observed in the social and cultural spheres. The Muslim conquest created Hindu-Muslim harmony in India and changed the social landscape. At the same time, commercial and cultural exchanges developed between the Muslim world and India. The influence of Arabic on Sindhi language is particularly noticeable. The Arabs were the first to acquire advanced knowledge of advanced Indian philosophy, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, etc. Al-Biruni later learned Sanskrit from Al-Masar and practiced Hindu culture. Thus, although the political significance of the Indus conquest was less, the social, religious, economic and cultural significance was far-reaching.


Arts and Architecture

The weapons used by the soldiers in the Umayyad period

Many improvements were made in Samle Char, crafts, sculpture and architecture. The formal practice of unpretentious Islam in the world of arts and crafts began with the pulpit erected in the Nawabi Mosque. Moss

It started with the pulpit set up in Jade Nawab. The pulpit was a piece of palm tree planted in the ground for Hazrat Darana while he was lecturing in the mosque. Later this myth. Gains the form of sight. The magnificent architecture of the Umayyads in architecture became the subject of contemporary history. The Umayyad caliphs were quite enthusiastic. The splendor and splendor of the caliphs made their architecture special. Affects. Although their art was based on ancient ideology, it was associated with religious ideology. That is why we realize the trend of development of Islamic civilization in mosque architecture. The progress of architecture started around the mosque. Mosques and other buildings were erected in the conquered area as a sign of military victory. Greek, Roman and Persian influences were observed in the architecture of this period. The Green Palace of Damascus, built by Muawiyah, is a masterpiece of architecture of the time. Construction of the famous mosque of Uqba bin Nafi Qairaan. Does. Caliph Walid bin Abdul Malik built the famous mosque in Damascus on the shrine of St. John. In 691, Caliph Abdul Malik built the world-famous Stone Dome, or The Dome of the Rock, in Jerusalem. Damascus's famous mosque and the Green Palace were built during this time. These palaces are notable for their frescoes. Also the palace of Hajjaj, Kusayer in the Syrian desert We and Mashatta still carry the memory of Umayyad architecture. Under the patronage of the Umayyad rulers. There is a lot of improvement in painting.


That is why it is different for the Muslim community under the Morley-Minto Reform Act of 1909

Accepts the electoral system, which is a great achievement of the Muslim League. 

Creation of the state of Pakistan; Since its inception, the Muslim League has been working on issues related to the interests of Muslims

The public support of the party continues to grow day by day. Branches of the party were formed in the provinces. When the Partition of Bengal was abolished in 1905 and the Partition of Bengal was abolished in 1911, the Muslim League started a movement against it. The first to form a team. The elite class was predominant in this group. But after the Laha proposal, the Muslim League emerged as a widely supported political party. Meanwhile, when the Hindu-Muslim community deteriorated, Muhammad. Ali Jinnah ‘demanded the formation of a state on the basis of biracialism. When the resolution was passed, the Muslim League started a movement for the establishment of the state of Pakistan. Later, in the plan of Lord Mountbatten, Congress and. With the consent of the Muslim League, India was partitioned in 1947 and the state of Pakistan was formed.


Partition of Bengal

Events and Consequences. Partition of Bengal: Events and Effects Partition of Bengal is an important event in the political history of India towards the turn of the twentieth century. This incident caused a great commotion among the Hindus and Muslims. Background of Partition of Bengal The Bengal Presidency was formed in 1854 with Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Chhet Nagpur and Assam and was administered by a Lieutenant Governor. When a severe famine occurred in Orissa in 18 AD, due to administrative difficulties, proper relief could not be provided there. While investigating the cause of the famine, the British Committee of Inquiry found that the administrative system of this vast province was the cause of the famine. In addition, the Commission of Inquiry recommended a number of developmental reforms in the administration of Bengal. After detailed discussions between the British authorities and the Indian government, it was decided that it would not be possible for a lieutenant governor to run the administration of the four eastern provinces properly. Although the Madras and Bombay presidencies were smaller in size than the Bengali presidencies, the administration of these two presidencies was vested in two separate governors and there were councils to assist them in their administration. But it was decided to reduce the size of the Bangla Presidency in order to reduce the responsibilities of the Lieutenant Governor of the Bengali Presidency. For this purpose, in 174 AD, Assam was separated from the Bengal Presidency and the administration of Assam was entrusted to a commissioner. Srihatta, Kachar, Gayalpara and other Bengali speaking districts are included in Assam. This was the first step of the division of Bengal. At the end of the nineteenth century, the question arose as to whether the Chittagong district and the entire Chittagong division should be included in the Bengali presidency or annexed to Assam. Before making a decision in this regard, Lord Curzon was appointed Governor of India in 1899. Andrews Fraser, Lieutenant Governor of Madhya Pradesh in 1901. He proposed to separate Orissa from the Bengal Presidency and annex it to Madhya Pradesh. Within a few days, Curzon appointed Fraser as the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal. Fraser, a supporter of Curzon's Bengali division, presented to Curzon a plan for the division of Bengal shortly before he took office. Curzon took the plan lightly. The proposal for partition of Bengal was officially raised in December 1903. A letter signed by Secretary Rizli to the Government of India proposed to the Government of Bengal that the entire Orissa-speaking region be annexed to Bengal and the four districts of the Chittagong Division and the two districts of Dhaka and Mymensingh of the Dhaka Division be separated from Bengal. This proposal When it was published, there was a great commotion in Bengal. Apart from political leaders, zamindars and all Hindus and Muslims are strongly opposed to the proposal


Even the English mouthpiece, the Englishman magazine, and the European merchants' unions began to oppose it. Lord Curzon visited Dhaka and sought the support of Muslim leaders.


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